The Department of Biochemistry is a full-fledged department which boasts of the latest and state-of-the-art fully automated random access chemistry analyzers which performs a vast battery of tests.
The department conducts both routine and specialized biochemical investigations for the admitted as well as out-doors patients attending the hospital. The department is open 24 hours and all routine and specialized tests are performed throughout the day and night. The department interacts actively with clinical colleagues to resolve any discrepancies and tries to find solutions to clinical problems. The facilities of the department are constantly being enhanced, both in terms of quality and inclusion of new parameters for measurement.
The entire laboratory works towards the unannounced motto -- "Perfection in Patient care" .
Quality assurance is maintained by monitoring all its aspects, viz. control of pre-analytical errors, analytical errors, post-analytical errors, turn-around time, maintenance of equipment, selection of reagents, and standardization of tests before they are introduced and external quality control assessment.
External Quality Control:
Our external quality control programme is through CMC-VELLORE and SGRH Lab. On monthly basis, our results have had extremely good scoring. Scores above 100 are considered extremely well and several of our tests have obtained a score of around 100 or above, giving confidence in our estimations. We have an ongoing internal as well as external quality control programme. Our internal quality control programme is part of our daily routine and the control sera used are procured from international companies like Beckman, Boehringer Biorad and Randox. The results have consistently been good to excellent. Our results have not only been well within the expected range but also very near the mean.
Routine Biochemical Tests:
Diabetes Assessment Tests : Glucose, glucose tolerance tests (GTT), glucose spot test, glycosylated haemoglobin, BUN, creatinine, uriacid, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride, cholesterol, microalbumin in urine.
Liver Function Tests : Bilirubin (direct and indirect), total protein, albumin, globulin, asparate transaminase (SGOT), alanine transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT.
Kidney Function Tests : BUN, creatinine, urinary protein, urinary creatinine clearance and random urinary parameters - sodium, potassium, chloride and microalbumin
Extended Lipid Profile : Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)].
Cardiac Enzymes : Creatinine phosphokinase (Total CPK and CK-MB fraction), lactate dehydrogenase
Anaemia Markers : Iron, TIBC, and Tranferrin
Immunological Parameters : Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM, IgE))
Pancreatic & Intestinal Function Tests : Amylase, lipase, D-xylose excretion.
Fluids : Urine, CSF, pleural, peritoneal, synovial aspirate, etc. These can be analysed for the routine - glucose, protein, Albumin and chloride and also specialised tests like LDH, Amylase and Immunoglobulins.
Cardiac markers : Troponin I (Trop I), High sensitivity CRP (HS-CRP), LDL subfraction electrophoretic profile
Inflammatory markers : Interleukin 6 (IL6), Tumor necrosing factor alpha (TNF alpha) Procalcitoxin (PCT) - especially beneficial as a prognostic marker for critically ill patients and septicemia in ICU.
VMA in urine
Beta 2 microglobulin
Hormones : Cortisol , Thyroid Profile, Infertility Profile, PTH
Tumour markers : CEA, PSA , CA - 125, CA-19.9, CA-15.3
Anaemia markers : Folic Acid and vitamin B12, Ferritin
Homocysteine : A marker for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular as well as peripheral vascular disease.
Total Antioxidant Status : Assesses preventive capabilities against oxidative damage to various tissues.
Antibiotics : Gentamycin, Vancomycin and Amikacin for therapeutic drug monitoring.
Therapeutic Drugs Levels: Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Valproic Acid, Lithium,
Whenever there is any sort of doubt about any sample such as time and type of sampling, drugs being given to the patients, or diagnosis, we collaborate with the clinicians and repeatedly assay the sample till we as well as the clinicians are satisfied with the result.
Every sample is also checked for lipaemia, haemolysis and icterus.
New parameters in the process of being introduced for patient care:
(i) Brain Natriuretic Peptide/Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (BNP/ANP) which is a specific indicator for congestive cardiac failure. BNP is a strong independent predictor of prognosis in patients with heart failure and following myocardial infarction, and is also used to monitor essential and various forms of secondary hypertension.
(ii) Free PSA which is a diagnostic as well as prognostic marker for prostatic carcinoma.
(iii) Lipid Peroxides